SPRINGS AND SPRINGSHED INVESTIGATIONS and SERVICES

Services include underwater cave exploration and survey to collect data regarding the conditions of submerged karstic features and springs. Various methods are employed, and often specifically developed, to collect data that is useful to hydrogeologists and engineers, and agencies and landowners.


SUBMERGED DISCHARGE MEASUREMENTS

Unique equipment and techniques are used to estimate submerged spring vent and underground conduit flows with regularity and consistency. Discrete underwater point velocities can also be accurately measured.


SAMPLING, INSTRUMENTATION, and MONITORING SUPPORT

Water quality sampling of discrete submerged locations can be performed, and on-site sampling assistance provided. Underwater instrument support includes sensor and sampling intake deployment, installation, retrieval and maintenance. Custom underwater instrument mounting design and fabrication is available. Long-term monitoring programs that include sampling and water levels can be established and maintained.


BIOLOGICAL and BOTANICAL SURVEYS

Experienced biologist and support team for detailed aquatic vegetation, faunal and troglobitic surveys.



QUALITATIVE DYE TRACING

A definitive, cost-effective method to identify the underground connections of surface features and their flow routes. Water-safe materials allowing for very low levels of accurate detection are used.


RADIOLOCATION of SUBMERGED CONDUIT

Specific locations within underground passages can be accurately identified on the surface by the placement and detection of underground beacons. This service can provide critical information for geologists and engineers regarding well siting and hazard avoidance.


SPRINGS RESTORATION and MAINTENANCE

Natural springs are often found to be in a state of deterioration. Past abuse and neglect, erosion, siltation, and destructive fishing practices are just a few of the factors that require intervention. Proper restoration can return a spring to its former beauty and usefulness, and increase its aesthetic and recreational value.